CRIME BOOKLET B - MAKING A CASE
In this booklet we consider how psychology can inform the investigative process.
When a crime has been committed, the police have to create a case that will stand up in court. It is their role to gather evidence from witnesses, alibis, suspects and forensic teams working at the crime scene.
Section 1: INTERVIEWING WITNESSES
Key to any crime is the interviewing of the witnesses, who may have vital evidence to give. However, psychologists have shown through much earlier work that what a witness sees and remembers is influence by many factors
Bruce - Recognising faces
Loftus - Weapon focus
Fisher - Cognitive interviews
Section 2: INTERVIEWING SUSPECTS
After an arrest, the purpose of an interview with a suspect is to establish guilt or innocence by getting them to say something about the events in question which may then lead to conviction, so different procedures are used with the emphasis on detecting truth or lies & establishing g guilt.
Mann - Detecting Lies
Inbau - Interrogation Techniques
Gudjohnson - False Confessions
Section 3: CREATING A PROFILE
A profile can often generate hypotheses about an offender’s most likely demographic and physical characteristics and about his or her behavioural habits and personality. As such it can be a valuable aid to crime detection especially if the crime is part of a series. (e.g. serial rape or murder).
Canter - Top-Down Approach
Canter & Herritage - Bottom-Up Approach
Canter - Case Study of John Duffy